The pine needle scale is probably the most common armored scale found on conifers in the United States and Canada. The white, oyster shell-shaped scales can completely cover needles, causing plant discolouration to needle and branch death. This pest prefers pines, especially Scotch and mugo, but it can infest other pine, spruce and fir trees.
Heavy infestations of pine needle scales remove considerable amounts of plant juices resulting in yellowed needles. From a distance, trees appear frosted or silvery. If heavy infestations are allowed to continue, twigs and branches may die.
This scale settles on the needles of its host and forms white, oyster shell-shaped wax covers. These covers or armor are about 1/16- to 1/8-inch long when the scales are fully grown and there is a yellowish spot on the small end. The eggs hatch in mid-May into tiny, flat nymphs called crawlers. These crawlers creep to new places on the tree in order to find suitable needles on which to feed. These clumsy crawlers often fall from the trees and may be blown onto nearby trees. Once settled on a suitable needle, the crawler inserts its hair-like mouthparts, and begins to form the new armor. After a couple of weeks, the nymph molts under the armor and continues to increase in size for about three weeks. By this time, male scales are smaller and more slender than the females. The males molt into a pre-pupa for a week before emerging as winged adults. The females, however, molt into wingless nymph-like adults. After mating, the females continue to grow for a couple of weeks before laying eggs under the armor. Females produce an average of 40 eggs.
Two generations of this scale occur. The overwintering eggs hatch in mid-May and the summer-produced eggs hatch in late July. Unfortunately, the eggs may hatch over a period of two to three weeks.
This scale normally is spread by crawlers being blown from tree to tree. Spread is also more rapid when mature trees begin to touch branches. Scale crawlers may also be spread by birds or animals which roost or brush against trees with active crawlers. Early detection will prohibit spread and reduce the need for extensive spraying.
Summer horticultural oil sprays are often effective against freshly settled crawlers and young nymphs. Horticultural oil sprays in combination with insecticidal soaps or insecticides are even more effective. Contact us today.